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Pigmenti Organici_ GIALLO INDIANO

Pigmenti Organici_ GIALLO INDIANO

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E’ un pigmento di origine sia organica che inorganica, animale e minerale, naturale e sintetica.
Conosciuto dal XV secolo in India sotto il nome di Purree, puri o peori, ma cosa era questa sostanza venduta in forma di sfere dure, di colore sporco e puzzolente?

Nel XIX secolo, il fabbricante di colori francese J.F.L. Mérimée fece commenti sul loro odore di urina. In Inghilterra George Field ebbe meno perplessità, ritenendola sicuramente ricavata da urina di cammello; altri credevano invece che il fluido provenisse da serpenti.
Fu solo nel 1883 che queste voci vennero ridimensionate. L’indiano Mukharji condusse indagini a Calcutta per scoprire l’origine delle sfere giallastre.
Qui scoprì che alcuni allevatori di bestiame, i “lattai”, fabbricavano queste sfere con l’urina di mucche nutrite esclusivamente di foglie di mango: la sostanza solida giallastra precipitava dal liquido quando veniva scaldato; dopo che era stata compressa ed essiccata, veniva spedita a Calcutta per essere venduta.
Sembra che l’intera produzione del pigmento nel XV secolo che dall’India giungeva in Italia ed Europa, provenisse da questo villaggio.
Successivamente le pratiche dei “lattai” furono denunciate come inumane vennero proibite.
Nel 1908 la produzione di giallo indiano era quasi scomparsa.

Come già detto, la sua fabbricazione è ottenuta dall’urina di vacca nutrita con foglie di mango che miscelata con precise proporzioni di allume di potassio, solfato di magnesio, sali di ammonio, acqua e euxantato in ammoniaca diluita da origine a euxantato di magnesio.
Tuttavia l’urina è solo una componente accidentale del pigmento: il colorante è un sale di calcio o magnesio di un acido organico rilasciato dal mango.

Dall’aspetto trasparente, può essere impiegato nella tempera, nell’encausto, nell’olio e acquerello. Sconsigliato nell’affresco. Per il suo scarso potere coprente viene spesso utilizzato per le velature.


Sinonimi: Giallo Euxantato, Puerì, Prusi
Inglese: Indian Yellow
Nomi antichi: Purrea, puri, peori

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